Around the world language may be a supply of communication among masses. Similarly, so as to speak with individual additionally has to have a language, that ought to be apprehensible by the computers. For the aim totally different languages area unit developed for playacting differing types of labor on the pc.


Mainly there are two types of computer languages


1. Low Level computer Languages

These area unit machine codes or near it. laptop cannot perceive instruction given in high level languages or in English. It will solely perceive and execute directions given within the type of machine languages i.e. the binary variety zero and one. Mainly there are two types of low level computer-oriented language.


Machine Language

The lowest and most basic language and was the primary form of artificial language to be developed. Mache language is largely the sole language which pc will perceive. In fact, a manufacturer styles a laptop to adjust only 1 language, its machine language, that is delineated  within the pc by a string of binary digits (bits) zero and one. The image zero indicate the absence of an electrical pulse and one for the presence of an electrical pulse. Since a laptop is capable of recognizing electrical signals, therefore, it understands machine language.

The set of binary codes which might be acknowledge by the pc is understood because the machine language instruction set. A machine language instruction consists of associate degree order code one or a lot of operands. The order code specifies that operation that’s to be performed e.g. read, record etc. the operands determine the quantities to be operated on e.g. the numbers to be another or the locations wherever information area unit hold on. But, it’s virtually not possible to put in writing programs directly in machine language. For this reason, programs area unit unremarkably written in assembly or high level languages so area unit translated within the machine language by totally different translators.



  • It makes quick and economical use of the pc
  • It needs no translator to translate the code i.e. directly understood by the pc.






  • All operation codes got to be remembered
  • All memory addresses got to be remembered
  • It is arduous to amend or realize errors during a program written within the machine language
  • These languages area unit machine dependent i.e. a specific machine language is used on only 1 form of laptop.



Assembly Languages

It was developed to beat a number of the numerous inconveniences of machine language. this can be another low level however a really vital language during which operation codes and operands area unit given within the type of alphamerical symbols rather than 0’s and 1’s. These alphamerical symbols are called method codes and may have most up to five letter mixtures e.g. ADD for addition, SUB for subtraction, begin LABEL etc. thanks to this feature it’s additionally called “Symbolic Programming Language”. This language terribly|is extremely|is incredibly} tough and desires plenty of apply to master it as a result of very little English support is given. This symbolic language helps in compiler orientations. The directions of the programming language will be born-again to machine codes by language translator to be dead by the pc


  • It is easier to grasp and use as compared to machine language
  • It is simple to find and proper errors
  • It is changed simply


  • Like machine language it’s additionally machine dependent
  • Since it’s machine dependent, there computer user ought to have the information of he hardware additionally.

2. Computer High Level Languages

High level laptop languages provide formats near West Germanic and therefore the purpose of developing high level languages is to modify folks to put in writing programs simply and in their own linguistic communication surroundings (English). High-level languages area unit essentially symbolic languages that use English words and/or mathematical symbols instead of method codes. every instruction within the high level language is translated into several machine language directions therefore showing one-to-many translation.

Problem-Oriented Language: These area unit languages used for handling specialised varieties of processing issues wherever computer user solely specifies the input/output needs and different relative data of the matter, that area unit to be solved . The computer user doesn’t got to specify the procedure to be followed in resolution that individual drawback.
Procedural Language: These area unit general purpose languages that area unit designed to specific the logic of an information process drawback.
Non-procedural Language: computer programing Languages that permit users and skilled programmers to specify the results they require while not specifying a way to solve the matter.

Selection of a computer-oriented language
There area unit several high-level languages in use nowadays. the selection of language depends on sort and complexness of the matter.
  • Purpose e.g. business, academic, scientific.
  • Facilities provided e.g. purposeful variable names, management and information structures, error checking facilities.
  • Ease of learning and use.
  • Portability – if a program is to he used on or in additional than one system.
  • Popularity – availableness of compilers/interpreters.
  • Documentation provided.

Types of High Level Languages

Many languages are developed for achieving totally different form of tasks, some area unit fairly specialised others area unit quite general purpose. These area unit classified in step with their use as:

Algebraic Formula-Type process. These languages area unit homeward-bound towards the process procedures for resolution mathematical and applied math issues. Examples area unit
  • BASIC (Basic All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code)
  • FORTRAN (Formula Translation).
  • PL/1 (Programming Language, Version 1).
  • ALGOL (Algorithmic Language).
  • APL (A Programming Language).

Business processing. These languages emphasize their capabilities for maintaining processing procedures and files handling issues. Examples are:

  • COBOL (Common Business homeward-bound Language)
  • RPG (Report Program Generator).

String and data processing. These area unit used for string manipulation together with rummage around for patterns, inserting and deleting characters. Examples are: LISP (List Processing).

Multipurpose Language. A general purpose language used for pure mathematics procedures, information and string process. Examples are:

  • Pascal (after the name of Blaise Pascal).
  • PL/1 (Programming Language, version 1).
  • C language.

Simulation: These is also written in pure mathematics or useful  languages. Examples are:

  • SPSS (Statistical Package System Simulator).
  • GPSS (General Purpose System Simulator).


Advantages: Following area unit the benefits of a high level language:

  • User-friendly (people based)
  • Similar to English with vocabulary of words axe symbols thus it’s easier to be told.
  • They need less time to put in writing
  • They are easier to keep up
  • Problem oriented’ instead of ‘machine’ based mostly
  • Shorter than their low-level equivalents. One statement interprets into several machine language directions.
  • Program written {in a|during a|in associate degree exceedingly|in a very} high-level equivalent will he translated into several machine language and so will run on each laptop that there exists an acceptable translator.
  • It is freelance of the machine on that it used i.e. programs developed in high level language is run on any laptop.


Disadvantages: There area unit sure disadvantages additionally Inspite these disadvantages high-level languages have well-tried their price. the benefits out-weigh the disadvantages far and away, for many applications. These are:


  • A application-oriented language must be translated into the -machine language by a translator and therefore a worth in laptop time is paid.
  • The object code generated by a translator may be inefficient compared to the same programming language program




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