FreeBSD Berkeley is a free Unix-like operating system from Software Distribution, available for all major platforms x86_64, IA-32, PowerPC, ARM, etc., and focuses primarily on features, speed, and performance stability.
FreeBSD is used by many top-level IT companies such as Juniper Networks, NetApp, Nokia, IBM, etc., and is only available for server platforms with command-line interfaces, but we can use any other Linux desktop environment Such as Xfce, KDE, GNOME, etc. to make it a user-friendly distro.
My environment setup
IP Address : 192.168.0.142 Hostname : freebsd.quofact.com Hard Disk : 16GB Memory : 2GB
This article will tell you the brief installation instructions. FreeBSD 13.0 And configure the interface using a text-based installation utility named Configure Network (Setting a Static IP Address) Bsdinstall Under i386 and AMD64 architectures.
FreeBSD 13.0. establishment
1. First go to the official FreeBSD site, and Download freebsd installer For your architecture, the installer comes in various formats including CD, DVD, network install, USB image, as well as virtual machine image.
2. After downloading the FreeBSD installer image, Burn it to media (CD / DVD or USB), And boot the system with the included media. After the system boots with the installation media, the following menu will be displayed.
3. By default, the menu will wait 10 seconds for user input before booting into the FreeBSD installer or we’ll ‘backspace‘Key to continue installation, and then press’Enter‘Key to boot in FreeBSD. Once the boot is complete, a welcome menu is displayed with the following options.
Press Enter To choose the default option ‘Install‘, Or you can choose’Shell‘To access the command line program to prepare the disk before installation or’live cd‘Option to try FreeBSD before installing it. But, here we are going to use the default option ‘Install‘As we are setting up FreeBSD.
4. Next, a list of shown keymaps, with a default selection of Keymap, Just choose the default option to continue with the keymap setup.
5. Next, give a hostname for our system, which I have used freebsd.quofact.com As my hostname.
6. Choose components to install for FreeBSD, by default each option is pre-selected.
7. In this step, we need to partition the disk for our installation. Here you will have four options:
- Auto (ZFS) – This option automatically creates an encrypted root-on-ZFS system that uses the ZFS file system with support for the boot environment.
- Auto (UFS) – This option automatically creates disk partitions using the ZFS file system.
- The guide – This option enables advanced users to create customized partitions from menu options.
- Shell – This option allows the user to create customized partitions using command line tools such as fdisk, gpart, etc.
But, here we are ‘going to choose’The guide‘Option to create a partition according to our needs.
8. ‘After choosing’Manual segmentation‘, A partition editor opens with highlighted drive’Advertisement 0And select Create to create a valid partitioning scheme.
9. Next, choose GPT To create a partition table. GPT is generally the most selected method for amd64 computers. Older computers, which are not compatible with GPT, should use MBR.
10. After creating the partition table, now you can see that our disk was converted to GPT partition table, select ‘To create‘To define a partition.
1 1. Now, here we need to define three partitions / Boot, Exchange, /. I am going to define my partition size as follows.
- / Boot – 512 MB in size
- Exchange 1GB in size
- / 15GBGB in size
Choose ‘To create‘And define the partition one by one on the first boot’Type‘ needs to be ‘Freebsd-boot’‘And the size here I have used 512K And press Okay To create the next partition swap.
Choose ‘To createAnd define Exchange Split for 1 GB and press Okay.
Then choose again ‘To createAnd define / the division. Now use the remaining size / the division. Use type FreeBSD-UFS And mount point as /.
12. After creating all the partitions, we will get the layout below. Choose ‘Finish‘To proceed to the next stage for installation.
13. Once the disk is created, the next window provides the last chance to edit the changes before formatting the selected disk. If you want to make any changes, choose [ Back ] To return to the main partition menu or select [ Revert & Exit ] To exit the installer without making any changes to the disk. But, here we need to ‘choose’Commit‘To start the installation and press’Enter‘.
14. Once the installer formats all the selected disks, it initializes the partition to download and verify all the selected components, and then the downloaded components are extracted to disk. As shown in the picture below.
15. Once all requested distribution packages have been extracted to disk, the next window displays the first post-installation configuration screen. Here, first of all, you need to ‘Settings’The root‘Password for our FreeBSD server.
Configuring Network Interfaces on FreeBSD
16. Next, a list of available network interfaces is displayed on the screen, select the interface to configure. Here I have only one network adapter. If you have more than one network adapter, choose the adapter you need to use.
17. Next, choose whether the IPv4 address should be defined on the selected Ethernet interface. Here we have 2 options to configure the network interface, one is using DHCP which will automatically assign an IP address to our network interface, the other will manually define the IP address. But, here we are assigning the computer a static IP address as shown below.
18. Next, enter a valid DNS server IP in IPv4 DNS # 1 and #2 And press OK to continue.
19. The next option prompts you to check the system clock usage UTC Or local time, if you have doubts, just ‘select’No‘To select the more commonly used local time.
20. The next window asks you to set the correct local time and time zone.
21. Next, select the services you want to start at system boot.
22. The next option asks you to create at least one user account to login to the system as a non-root account to keep the system more secure and secure. Choose [ Yes ] To add new users.
Follow the prompts and enter the requested information for the user account (e.g. Users’quofact‘)
After entering the above user information, a summary is shown for review. If a mistake occurred during user creation, do not enter and try again. If everything is entered correctly, enter yes to create a new user.
23. After configuring everything above, the last chance to modify or change the settings is given. After any last configuration is complete, choose Exit.
24. After installation is complete, select ‘Reboot‘Reboot the system, and start using your new FreeBSD system.
25. After the reboot is complete we will get the terminal to log in for an account, by default, we will have The root and quofact That we created during the installation. Log in to the root account and check for system information such as IP address, host-name, file system disk space, and release version.
# hostname # ifconfig | grep inet # uname -mrs // To get the Installed FreeBSD release version. # df -h // Disk space check.
In this article we have seen how we have installed and configured FreeBSD.